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Wolves, Intelligent software predators. Wolf predator. amazing wolves

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 Wolves, Intelligent software predators. Wolf predator. amazing wolves

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VerbotenZugriffVerweiger

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PostSubject: Wolves, Intelligent software predators. Wolf predator. amazing wolves   Tue Sep 24, 2013 3:16 pm

Wolves, Intelligent software predators. Wolf predator. amazing wolves


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PostSubject: Re: Wolves, Intelligent software predators. Wolf predator. amazing wolves   Tue Sep 24, 2013 4:14 pm

Wolf or gray wolf, or common wolf [1] (lat. Canis lupus) - a carnivorous mammal of the family canine. Together with the coyote (Canis latrans) and jackal (Canis aureus) is a small genus of wolves (Canis). In addition, as the results of the study of DNA and genetic drift, is the direct ancestor of the domestic dog, which is usually regarded as a subspecies of wolf (C. l. Familiaris).
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PostSubject: Re: Wolves, Intelligent software predators. Wolf predator. amazing wolves   Tue Sep 24, 2013 4:17 pm

Once upon a wolf had a much more widespread in Eurasia and North America. In our time, its range and the total number of animals has greatly decreased, mainly as a result of human activity: changes in the natural landscape, urbanization and mass extermination. In many parts of the world the wolf is on the verge of extinction, while in the north of the continents its population remains stable. Despite the fact that the wolf population continues to decline, it is still in many places is the object of hunting as representing a potential danger to humans and livestock, or for fun.
As one of the key predators wolves play a very important role in the balance of ecosystems, biomes, such as the temperate forest, taiga, tundra, steppe and mountain ranges. Total emit about 32 subspecies of wolf, different sizes and shades of fur.
The appearance of the Wolf
Dimensions and total weight of wolves susceptible strong geographic variation ; noticed that they change proportionally , depending on the surrounding environment and in full compliance with the rule Bergman (the colder the climate, the larger the animal ) . In general, the height of the animals at the withers ranges from 60-95 cm , length 105-160 cm, weight 32-62 kg, which makes an ordinary wolf one of the most large mammals in the family . [3 ] Profit ( yearling ) wolves weigh in 20-30 kg, pereyarki (2-3 years) - 35-45 kg . Wolf matures at the age of 2.5-3 years , reaching a weight of 50 kilograms or more . In Siberia and Alaska major experienced wolves can weigh more than 77 kg . [4 ]
Large animal was registered in 1939 in Alaska : it weighs about 80 kg . [5] 86 -minute pound wolf was killed in Ukraine in Poltava region. It is believed that in Siberia weight of individual items may not exceed 92 kg . The smallest subspecies of the wolf should be considered Arab (Cl arabs), the female is an adult can weigh only 10 kg . Within one population of males than females are always about 20% , and more Lobastov head [6].
From the general appearance resembles a large wolf eared dog. Feet tall, strong , paw larger and more elongated than the dog , the length of the track of the order of 9-12 cm, width 7 cm, the middle two fingers more brought forward , fingers spread apart and imprint vividly than in the dog . The track marks the wolf smoother , and forms an almost flat line, and the dogs - sinuous line . Shirokolobov head , face relatively broad, strongly stretched and framed on either side , " whiskers ". The massive wolf muzzle well distinguishes it from a jackal and coyote who have it more narrow and sharp. Moreover, it is very expressive : scientists distinguish more than 10 facial expressions : anger , rage , humility , kindness , joy , alertness , threat, calm and fear. [7 ]
The skull is large, massive , high. Nasal aperture wide , especially noticeable flaring . The greatest length of the skull of males 268-285 , females 251-268 , condylobasal skull length of males 250-262 , females 230-247 , zygomatic width of males 147-160 , females 136-159 , interorbital width of males 84-90 , females 78-85 , length of the upper row of teeth of males 108-116 , females 100-112 mm .
Structure of the wolf teeth - an important characteristic that determines the way of life of this predator . On the upper jaw has 6 incisors, 2 canines , eight premolars and molars 4 . The lower jaw contains more than 2 molar . [8 ] The fourth upper premolars and first lower molars are carnivorous teeth, which have a central role in the division game. An important role is also played by canines that the predator holds and drags the victim. Wolf teeth capable of supporting more than 10 MPa and are his main weapon and a means of protection [ 5]. Their loss is detrimental to the wolf and leads to starvation and loss of capacity .
The tail is fairly long, thick and , unlike the dog , always hangs down ; hunters called it " a log ." The tail is expressive "language" of the wolf. In his position and movement can judge the mood of the wolf when he is calm and he is afraid of his position in the pack.
Fur wolves thick, fairly long and consists of two layers , because that is what the animal looks bigger than it actually is. The first layer consists of a hard coat guard hairs that repel water and dirt . The second layer is called undercoat includes waterproof fluff warming animal. In late spring or early summer down lumps peeled from the body ( molting ), and the animals rub against rocks or tree branches for facilitating this process.








lying wolf
Between subspecies of the wolf there are significant differences in color , often in accordance with the environment. Forest wolves - gray- brown. Tundra - light , almost white . Deserted - grayish- reddish . In the highlands of Central Asia, the wolves bright ocher color . In addition, there are pure white , red , or almost black individuals .



At cubs painting one dark and lighter with age , while the blue iris eye through 8-16 weeks of life usually becomes golden yellow or orange . [9] In rare cases, the eyes of wolves remain blue for life . [10] Within a population of coat color may also vary from individual animals or have mixed colors. The differences relate only to the outer layer of wool - always gray undercoat . It is often assumed that the color of the coat is designed to merge with the animal's environment , that is, acts as camouflage , but this is not true : some scholars point out that the mixed colors enhance the personality of the individual subject . [11]
Wolf tracks are distinguishable from the traces of the dog on several grounds : the lateral fingers ( index and pinky ) over brushed back against average ( middle and ring ) , if a line from the tip of the little finger to the tip of the index finger , the middle finger base will drop only slightly behind that line, while the dog behind the line will be about one-third the length of the pads of middle fingers . Also holds a wolf 's paw " in the lump ," so print more relief, and therefore somewhat smaller footprint wolf trail dog of the same size . Also track the wolf tracks are much straighter than a trace of the dog track , which serves as a reliable " identification mark ". Next grown wolf has a length of 9.5-10.5 cm, width 7.6 cm wolf - 8.5-9.5 cm and 5-6 cm


voice
The variety and frequency range of voice means wolves significantly superior to that of the absolute majority of animals ( other than humans and bats ) . Wolves emit sounds such as howling, howl , whine , growl , growling , yelping , barking. Each sound has a huge number of variations [ 12].
The reaction to the sounds of wolves conscious . With the voices of wolves can transmit a very complex messages - about finding a certain animal in a certain place. Thus , the researcher observed the Farley Mowat in the Canadian tundra , like a chain wolves transmitted over long distances information about what they expected caribou moved south and stay there - that . In this case, the wolf first listens to the information wafting from another wolf , which may be eight kilometers . Then transmitting throws her head back and howls vibrating roar : first low, but ending in a high note , yet perceived by the human ear . Checking wolf reported finding caribou confirmed this case. Wolves can communicate to each other , even the appearance of humans [ 12].
The signal to attack the wolves - it's a battle cry to be fed leader of the pack . This sound like an angry dog growling , catching on humans [ 12].
Wolves howl at dawn or dusk, but not every day. Begins with a solo howl howl leader, which is very different from the other members of the howling of the pack. They join later. Choral howling usually ends yapping shrill barks . [12]
The collective voice work is a sign of the pack of social life. Wolves addiction to it has an emotional basis and sharpens the sense of belonging to the pack. It is also a means of communicating with other packs and otbivshimisya counterparts [ 12].
Some people are able to understand the audio messages that are exchanged between wolves, these include Eskimo Utek , met in the Canadian tundra F . Mowat [12
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PostSubject: Re: Wolves, Intelligent software predators. Wolf predator. amazing wolves   Tue Sep 24, 2013 4:38 pm

area


The area of ​​the wolf.
In historical times among terrestrial mammals wolf habitat was the second largest in area after area man, covering most of the Northern Hemisphere is now greatly reduced.
In Europe, the wolf remained in Spain, the Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Portugal, Italy, Poland, Scandinavia, the Balkans and the Baltics. In Asia it inhabits Korea, China, and partly the Indian subcontinent, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, north of the Arabian Peninsula, became extinct in Japan (subspecies Canis lupus hodophilax). In North America, is found from Alaska to Mexico.


habitat
Wolf lives in a variety of landscapes , but prefers steppes, deserts , tundra , forest-steppe , avoiding dense forests. In the mountains spread from the foot to the area of alpine meadows , keeping open , slightly crossed areas. May settle near human habitation . In the taiga zone spread after the man , along with the cutting of the taiga.
Wolf - just a territorial thing. Breeding pairs , and often pack, lead sedentary life in certain areas , the boundaries of which are indicated scented markers. The diameter of the site occupied by a bunch of winter, usually 30-60 miles. In spring and summer, when the flock splits occupied territories it is divided into several chapters. The best of them captures and holds the major pair , the remaining wolves are moving to polubrodyachy lifestyle. In the open steppes and tundra wolves frequently roam after ambulant herds of livestock or domestic deer.


Wolf resting at den
Lair arranged for breeding , they are usually natural refuge - cleft in the rocks , bushes and the like. Sometimes wolves occupy burrows of badgers , marmots , foxes and other animals , rarely dig their own. Most linked to the lair of the female during rearing , the male does not use it . Young animals displayed in sheltered places: in the forest regions - mainly in dense bush , on crests of marshy wetlands , steppes - the overgrown bushes ravines, gullies and dry reed beds in lakes in the tundra - in the hills. Characteristically, the wolves had never foraged near his home, and at a distance of 7-10 km and beyond. After the cubs grow up, stop using animals permanent lair , and arranged to rest in different but reliable places . Little cubs brownish color, very similar to the normal domestic dog puppies .


Lifestyle and Nutrition

Wolf - a typical predator, actively seeking to get food and harassment victims.



The basis of the power of wolves are ungulates : the tundra - the reindeer in the forest zone - elk , deer , roe deer , wild boar , in the steppes and deserts - antelope. Attacking wolves and domestic animals ( sheep , cows, horses) , including dogs. Catch , especially single wolves , and smaller prey : rabbits, squirrels , small rodents . In summer, the wolves do not miss a chance to eat a clutch of eggs, chicks sitting on nests or feeding on the ground grouse , waterfowl and other birds. Often mined and domestic geese . Sometimes become prey of wolves foxes, raccoon dogs , Korsakov , occasionally hungry wolves attack on a sleeping bear in the den . There are many cases where they broke off and ate the weaker animals wounded by hunters or severely injured in a fight during the rut . Unlike many other predators wolves often come back to the half-eaten remains of their prey , especially in the hungry season. Do not disdain the corpses of livestock, and on the coast - the carcasses of seals and other marine animals, cast ashore . During periods of starvation wolves eat reptiles, frogs and large insects (beetles, grasshoppers ) . Wolves , especially in southern areas, and feed on vegetable food - different berries , wild fruits and garden , even mushrooms. In the steppes they often make raids on the plantations of watermelons and cantaloupes , not so much to satisfy hunger, thirst much as need regular , abundant watering .

Active mostly at night. About his presence wolves often give to know a loud howl, very different from their mothers males, and young wolves. Of the senses of a wolf is best developed ear, a little worse - the sense of smell, sight is much weaker. A well-developed higher nervous activity is combined with the wolves strength, agility, speed and other physical characteristics that increase the chances of the predator in the struggle for existence. If necessary, the wolf has a top speed of 55-60 km / h and is able to make transitions to 60-80 km per night. And accelerates to a gallop for a few seconds, breaking the 4 meters, after which it is rushing at full speed. 
By attacking the herd, wolves often cut several animals, ripping their throats or strutting belly. Uneaten meat wolves left in reserve. 
Mentally wolf is highly developed. This is reflected in the ability to navigate the environment and away from danger, but also in the ways of hunting. There are cases when a pack of wolves was divided, and one part remained in ambush, and another was catching up on her prey. In the pack, chasing a deer or elk, wolves often one run on the heels of the victim, and others - to intercept or pants slowly and rested, replace the advanced, yet will not take the victim into submission....
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PostSubject: Re: Wolves, Intelligent software predators. Wolf predator. amazing wolves   Tue Sep 24, 2013 4:48 pm

There were also cases of almost human intelligence in wolves. For example, there was a case when the hunters drove wolves by helicopter in a grove of trees. At first they could not find, then, when the hunters descended from a helicopter and on foot went into a grove of trees found that wolves stood on his hind legs, and (!) Clung to the trunks of trees, clutching their front paws, so observe them from a helicopter was extremely difficult....
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